Madagascar info: You will find that as you do research the numbers are not the same depending where you go to check. I look over many sites, take into consideration the dates and growth rates and make an educated guess. I have placed some current excerpts here from MAY 2015. My opinion is that when you have a country that was based off oral tradition, rough terrain and never enough funding to complete any tasks that larger agencies have started you will have large differences in information. The Population, death rates, ages of children and birth rates seem to be the ones I find off the most. Export and import material items are closer to accurate. Enjoy the research…
Off Africa’s southeast coast in the Indian Ocean, Madagascar is the world’s fourth largest island after Greenland, New Guinea, and Borneo. A stunning diversity (over 80%) of plant and animal species found nowhere else evolved after the island broke away from the African continent 165 million years ago. It has a mountainous central plateau and coastal plains. The first settlers were of African and Asian origin, and 18 separate ethnic groups emerged, derived from an African and Malayo-Indonesian mixture. Asian features are most predominant in the central highlands people, and coastal people tend to show features of African origin. Most of the population depend on subsistence farming, based on rice and cattle, with coffee, vanilla, and seafood being important exports.
French colonial rule began in 1896; independence came in 1960. In 1990, after almost 20 years of Marxism, Madagascar lifted a ban on opposition parties, and a new president was elected in 1993. Elections in 2001 resulted in a period of civil unrest, lasting for several months, until Marc Ravalomanana was declared winner of the presidential election. Environmental degradation is a major concern as damaging agricultural practices cause deforestation, soil erosion, and desertification. The island is heavily exposed to tropical cyclones, which brought destructive floods in 2004.
- Industry: Meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries
- Agriculture: Coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves; livestock products
- Exports: Coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
—Text From National Geographic Atlas of the World, Eighth Edition
Republic of Madagascar
President: Hery Rajaonarimampianina (2014)
Prime Minister: Jean Ravelonarivo (2015)
Land area: 224,533 sq mi (581,540 sq km), roughly about 1,000 miles from top to bottom; total area:226,656 sq mi (587,040 sq km) 250 miles across at the widest point
Population (2014 est.):23,201,926 (growth rate: 2.62%); birth rate: 33.12/1000; infant mortality rate: 44.88/1000; life expectancy: 65.2
Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Antananarivo, 1.987 million Locals say Tana
Monetary unit: Malagasy Ariary (personal knowledge)
National name: Repoblikan’i Madagaskara no C in the official alphabet
Languages: Malagasy and French (both official), English
Ethnicity/race: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Côtiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry: Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Islam 7%
National Holiday: Independence Day, June 26
Literacy rate: 64.5% (2009 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP(2013 est.): $22.03 billion; per capita $1,000. Real growth rate: 2.6%. Inflation: 8.8%. Unemployment: N.A. Arable land: 5.96%. Agriculture: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products. Labor force: 9.504 million (2007). Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism. Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower. Exports: $644.4 million (2013 est.): coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products.Imports: $2.794 billion (2012 est.): capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food. Major trading partners: U.S., France, Germany, China, Kuwait, India, Bahrain, Mauritius, Singapore, Indonesia, South Africa, Canada (2012).
Communications: Telephones:main lines in use: 143,700 (2012); mobile cellular: 8.564 (2012). Broadcast media: state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately-owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 38,392 (2012). Internet users: 319,900 (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 854 km (2008). Roadways: total: 34,476 km; paved: 5,613 km; unpaved: 2,886 km (2010 est.). Waterways: 600 km (432 km navigable) (2011). Ports and terminals: Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear). Airports: 83 (2013).
International disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands).